Since 1969, WHO has required that all cases of the following diseases be reported to the organization: cholera, plague, yellow fever, smallpox, relapsing fever and typhus. In 2005, the list was extended to include polio and SARS.
What is infectious disease surveillance system?
Infectious disease surveillance is an important epidemiological tool to monitor the health of a population. The goals of infectious disease surveillance are threefold: (1) to describe the current burden and epidemiology of disease, (2) to monitor trends, and (3) to identify outbreaks and new pathogens.
What is surveillance according to who?
Public health surveillance (also epidemiological surveillance, clinical surveillance or syndromic surveillance) is, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), “the continuous, systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of health-related data needed for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of
What are the 5 steps of surveillance?
Steps in establishing and maintaining surveillance system Establish Goals Develop Case definitions Select appropriate personnel Acquire tools and clearances for collection , analysis and dissemination Implement surveillance system Evaluate surveillance activities 6.
Which diseases are under WHO surveillance? – Related Questions
What are the three types of surveillance?
Different surveillance methods
- Electronic surveillance – Electronic surveillance equipment is often the most used tool during an investigation.
- Interviews – Interviews are far less common, but they can serve a purpose in certain investigations.
- Observation – You can gather a lot of information just by observing someone.
What are the four types of surveillance systems?
Passive surveillance, active surveillance, and also syndromic surveillance. Passive surveillance is the most common form of surveillance and occurs when laboratories, physicians, or other healthcare providers regularly report cases or disease to the local health department.
What are the different steps of surveillance?
Steps in carrying out surveillance
- Reporting. Someone has to record the data.
- Data accumulation. Someone has to be responsible for collecting the data from all the reporters and putting it all together.
- Data analysis.
- Judgment and action.
What is the process of surveillance?
Process surveillance, the consistent and quanti- tative monitoring of practices that directly or indirectly contribute to a health outcome and the use of those data to improve outcomes, has begun to emerge as a valid and important measurement tool for health care organizations.
What are the methods of surveillance?
This can include observation from a distance by means of electronic equipment, such as closed-circuit television (CCTV), or interception of electronically transmitted information like Internet traffic. It can also include simple technical methods, such as human intelligence gathering and postal interception.
What are the principles of surveillance?
As in disasters, the principles of surveillance (data collection, data analysis, response to data, and assessment of response) and other public health techniques should be an integral part of relief efforts. Retrospective evaluation of these efforts has also proved useful (CDC 1983).
What are 3 of the goals of surveillance?
Where the objectives of surveillance include estimating the distribution of cases within the population, and changes in that distribution, then the choice of target population, and of the mechanism for ascertaining cases, should be guided by considerations of the representativeness of the resulting information.
What are the four critical characteristics of surveillance?
Each of these sectors contributes to the four basic components of surveillance, which are (1) collection, (2) analysis, (3) dissemination, and (4) response. Collection and analysis can be conducted at the local, state, federal, or international level by public agencies as well as by private industry.
What is the purpose of disease surveillance?
Information from surveillance systems can be used to monitor the burden of a disease over time, detect changes in disease occurrence (e.g., outbreaks), determine risk factors for the disease and populations at greatest risk, guide immediate public health actions for individual patients or the community, guide programs
What are the 5 principles of disease surveillance?
There are five data collection approaches in surveillance including passive surveillance, active surveillance, sentinel surveillance, community-based surveillance, and syndromic surveillance.
What are the advantages of disease surveillance?
Benefits from surveillance and response to epidemic-prone infectious disease include health benefits from limiting cases, deaths and disabilities, as well as economic, social and psychological benefits which result from averting outbreaks or controlling them at an early stage.
What makes a good surveillance system?
Guidelines published by the CDC have suggested several criteria for evaluating public health surveillance systems, including simplicity, data quality, acceptability, sensitivity, positive predictive value, representativeness, timeliness, stability, usefulness, flexibility, and cost.
How do you plan a surveillance system?
Steps in planning a surveillance system
- Establish objectives.
- Develop case definitions.
- Determine data sources data-collection mechanism (type of system)
- Determine data-collection instruments.
- Field-test methods.
- Develop and test analytic approach.
- Develop dissemination mechanism.
- Assure use of analysis and interpretation.
How is surveillance used in epidemiology?
PIP: Epidemiological surveillance is the systematic collection, analysis, and dissemination of health data for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health programs.
What are two key global health surveillance systems?
These two types of public health surveillance – event-based surveillance and indicator-based surveillance – complement one another.
What are the two main types of surveillance?
Covert surveillance refers to techniques used which are hidden or disguised so that the subject does not know they are being monitored or watched. Overt surveillance refers to the use of devices which are visible and recognisable such as a signposted CCTV system.
What are the major data sources used in public health surveillance?
Data sources and methods for surveillance systems include notifiable diseases, laboratory specimens, vital records, sentinel surveillance, registries, surveys, and administrative data systems.