Upstream & Downstream Processing. The production of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) of biopharmaceuticals typically starts with generation of the API via living cells known as the upstream process, followed by purification of the target API, or the downstream process.
What is an upstream process?
Upstream process is the first step of bioprocess from early cell isolation and cultivation, to cell banking and culture development of the cells until final harvest where the desired quantity is reached. Since this is the early stage of bioprocessing, the quality of the product is of critical importance.
What is upstream and downstream processing?
Upstream refers to the material inputs needed for production, while downstream is the opposite end, where products get produced and distributed.
What is upstream processing example?
What Is Upstream Processing (USP)? The upstream part of a bioprocess refers to the initial stage in which microbes/cells are grown, e.g., bacterial or mammalian cell lines in bioreactors. Upstream processing involves all the steps related to inoculum development: Media Preparation.
What is upstream and downstream process in biotech? – Related Questions
What is difference between upstream and downstream?
Simply put, upstream works include the exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas, whilst downstream refers to the processes applied after extraction through to it being delivered to the customer in whatever format required.
What is the aim of upstream processing?
The goal of upstream biomanufacturing is to grow cells that will produce a desired protein, the protein being further purified during the downstream processing steps (see Downstream Processing chapter).
Which of the following is upstream processing?
Which of the following is an upstream process? Explanation: Upstream processing includes formulation of the fermentation medium, sterilisation of air, fermentation medium and the fermenter, inoculum preparation and inoculation of the medium.
What is upstream processing in pharmaceutical manufacturing?
Upstream Processing refers to the first step in which biomolecules are grown, usually by bacterial or mammalian cell lines, in bioreactors. When they reach the desired density (for batch and fed batch cultures) they are harvested and moved to the downstream section of the bioprocess.
Is cell harvesting upstream or downstream?
Cell harvesting is a critical step in connecting upstream monoclonal antibody production with downstream purification. Selecting the best cell harvesting technology based on the characteristics of the cell culture process can be challenging.
What is upstream and downstream processing in fermentation?
The key difference between upstream and downstream bioprocessing is that upstream bioprocessing involves screening and identification of microorganisms, media preparation, multiplication of microbes inside a bioreactor, and incubation, while downstream bioprocessing involves extraction, purification and packaging of
What is downstream processing in biotechnology?
Downstream processing (DSP) describes the series of operations required to take biological materials, such as cells, tissue culture fluid, or plant tissues, and derive from them a pure and homogeneous protein product.
What is upstream and downstream example?
Downstream means towards where the flow ends, at the opposite end of the waterway from the source. If you are boating from Kingston to Toronto, for example, you are heading upstream. If you are going from Kingston to Cornwall, you are travelling downstream.
What is downstream processing in fermentation?
Downstream processing refers to the recovery and the purification of biosynthetic products, particularly pharmaceuticals, from natural sources such as animal tissue, plant tissue or fermentation broth, including the recycling of salvageable components as well as the proper treatment and disposal of waste.
What is downstream processing and its steps?
This article throws light upon the five stages in downstream processing. The five stages are: (1) Solid-Liquid Separation (2) Release of Intracellular Products (3) Concentration (4) Purification by Chromatography and (5) Formulation. In Fig. 20.1, an outline of the major steps in downstream processing is given.
What are the uses of downstream processing?
The purpose of downstream processing is to isolate, purify and concentrate the previously synthesized drug substance or other product from the complex bulk matrix. Downstream processing may also include formulation activities, signifying the transition from drug substance to drug product (DP).
What are the 4 types of fermentation?
Based on the end product formed, fermentation can be classified into four types namely, lactic acid fermentation, alcohol fermentation, acetic acid fermentation, and butyric acid fermentation.
What are the 2 types of fermentation?
There are two types of fermentation, alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid fermentation. Our cells can only perform lactic acid fermentation; however, we make use of both types of fermentation using other organisms.
What are the 3 different types of fermentation?
The three main types of fermentation are alcohol fermentation, lactic acid fermentation and acetic acid fermentation.
What are the 5 types of fermentation?
Table of Contents
- Type # 1. Alcoholic Fermentation:
- Type # 2. Lactic Acid Fermentation:
- Type # 3. Propionic Acid Fermentation:
- Type # 4. Butyric Acid — Butanol Fermentation:
- Type # 5. Mixed Acid Fermentation:
What are 3 applications of fermentation?
Fermentation is a process widely used in yoghurt production, pickles, bread, other bakery and food products, alcoholic biofuels and other beverages like beer, wine, liquors, ethyl alcohol, etc. Other commercial applications of the fermentation process are: Curing of tea. Tanning of leather.
Is fermentation aerobic or anaerobic?
Fermentation is another anaerobic (non-oxygen-requiring) pathway for breaking down glucose, one that’s performed by many types of organisms and cells. In fermentation, the only energy extraction pathway is glycolysis, with one or two extra reactions tacked on at the end.